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Youth and Drugs (Sociology of Narcotism) »

METHODS OF STATISTIC OBSERVATION AND DATA USE FOR SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM

V. A. Sobolev

* Originally in Russian:
Sobolev, V. A. (2000). Methods of statistic observation and data use for sociological analysis of the problem. In: Youth and Drugs (sociology of narcotism) (eds. V. A. Sobolev and I. P. Rushchenko), pp. 130–158. Kharkiv: Torsing.

When studying processes of drug spread and drug consumption among the youth and teenagers and drug diseases, as a rule, three channels of information are used: statistical data on criminal cases, connected with illegal drug turnover; medical statistics in relation to the people, registered in narcological dispensaries and other medical institutions; experts’ interrogation (servants of law-enforcement and other bodies, of courts, of the Prosecutor’s Office, doctors-narcologists, psychopathologists); various categories of teenagers and the youth.

In accordance with adopted instructions by the General Prosecutor’s Office in Ukraine and by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, dated 1st of January 1996, standard documents of statistical registration of the crimes committed have been introduced. They include a number of forms (No. 1, 2, 1.1, 4). The analysis of the information they contain, allows classifying a kind of a crime, its seriousness and social consequences.

After coding, all these forms and cards are forwarded to the Department of Operative Information (DOI) of the Department of Internal Affairs of Ukraine in Kharkiv Region and registered in the computer database.

Since 1974 to 1993 the information is kept in the archives of DOI. The statistical data on various committed crimes was given in the annual reports on the criminogenous situation in the city and in the region, and the dynamics of this data has been followed.

Since 1993 to 1995 the statistical information on criminal cases, connected with illegal turnover of drugs according to Criminal Code articles 229–1, 229–2, 229–3, 229–4, 229–5, 229–6, 229–7, by every District Department of Militia of the Kharkiv Region is kept in the Department of Operative Information of the DMIA of Ukraine in the Kharkiv region.

For the period from 1994 to 1995 there is information about general number of crimes (by age, sex, education, occupation, number of people, taking part in committing crimes, by previous convictions, by characteristics of the condition in which the crime was committed, by ability to work, and also the number of criminals from the people without definite place of residence and those who was leading a parasitic way of life).

Starting from 1996 the information by the additional indices, characterizing the processes, connected with the illegal drug turnover began to be registered. In particular, the number of criminal cases which had:

And also the data:

The processing and the analysis of the criminal cases kept in the archives of the Department of Operative Information of the Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Kharkiv Region, let us reveal a number of tendencies connected with illegal drug turnover:

Medical statistics gives important information about the level of spread, consumption of drugs and narcotic diseases.

Before 1976, medical assistance to narcological patients was made by psychiatrists in the structure of outpatients’ and stationary psychiatric clinics, that’s why the statistical accounts were done in the structure of these subdivisions.

On the 5th of February 1976, the Order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR 131 was issued. According to this Order a narcological dispensary was listed as an establishment of health care. Further, since February to March 1976 there was issued the number of normative documents and the narcological service has been created. Since 1976, with the creation of narcological dispensaries the collection of statistics is done within the structural subdivisions of a newly created narcological service. The revealing of drug takers is done in general (besides servants of law-enforcement and other bodies) by:

When revealing a drug taker, he is registered in medical institutions and bodies of internal affairs, every quarter all registered people are checked. Except those people who came to a narcological institution on a voluntary basis and follow all prescriptions of the doctor. These people are registered only in medical institutions.

The Ministry of Health appointed medical institutions of narcological profile which are making this registration. In Kharkiv region, this is Kharkiv Narcological Dispensary (KRND) for patients, living in the region and Kharkiv City Clinical Narcological Hospital No. 9 (KCCNH No. 9) for patients, living in the city of Kharkiv. Those revealed drug addicts, toxin addicts are registered in dispensaries (with it the primary diagnosis “drug addiction”, “toxic addiction” is stated only by a medical qualifying commission of the narcological institution, the legislation stipulates the measures of compulsion in case of the refusal from the voluntary examination for the purpose of the drug intoxication condition statement and examination for the purpose of stating the diagnosis “drug addiction”, “toxic addiction”), drug takers without the signs of dependence are registered for preventive purposes. Persons, using drugs and stupefying substances are registered in “Control card of dispensary observation” and the “Notification” about patients with for the first time in his life stated diagnosis”, “Medical Card of the out-patient”. All these documents are kept in the district narcological consulting room.

Departments of organization and methodology of the narcological hospitals and dispensaries make annual reports including the information about the number of patients registered with drug addiction and toxic addiction diseases, alcoholism, and also about the number of people, removed from the account (adults and teenagers separately) and also the main indices of the medical assistance given to this contingent. Reports are forwarded to the Ministry of Health and to the Department of Organization and Methodology of the Ukrainian Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Neurology and Psychiatry. The Ministry of Health of Ukraine publishes statistical reference books “Narcological Assistance to the population of Ukraine”. When analysing the medical statistics we took into account two main indices for each nozological group:

Data are grouped in four nosological groups: drug addicts, toxic addicts, chronic alcoholism, and alcoholic psychoses. For the period since 1968 to 1997 the situation with narcological diseases changed more than once. The analysis of the narcological statistics let us make a number of observations:

As a whole, both in Ukraine and in Kharkiv region, the tendency of steady growth of drug addiction is being registered. The peculiarity of Kharkiv region is the relative prevailing of the increase of those who take drugs without addiction over the increase of the number of drug addicts. It testifies to the generalization of the given phenomenon. As far as the group of sick people will increase at the expense of those who take drugs without addiction, we can forecast further growth of drug addiction in Kharkiv region:

The observation of teenagers’ behavior with their attitude to alcohol, drugs let us speak not only about the generalization of narcotism in the Ukrainian society but about the appearance of the definite fashion for the consumption of addictive substances in the youth subculture as well.

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